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Who is the Metropolitan Water District of SoCal...and why should you care?

Metropolitan Water District of Southern California
http://www.mwdh2o.com/

NOTES taken from the November 200r Regional Urban Water Management Plan published by the MWDof SC

Coverage Area: Counties of Los Angeles, Orange, Riverside, San Bernardino, San Diego and Venturea

Population: 20,971,000 in the area: in MWD service area: (87%) 18,143,000

Population Growth: Population growth slowed during the early 1990s to just over 50,000 in 1995, before again rising to more than 300,000 per year in the period 1999 through 2002. Growth has continued at just under 300,000 since that time.

Trends in Southern California Population

Population is a key indicator of regional growth. In the mid-1990s, population growth in Metropolitan’s service area slowed during the recession, which disproportionately affected Southern California. An estimated 400,000 jobs were lost between 1990 and 1995, reducing Metropolitan’s average population growth to less than 150,000 people per year. During the economic recovery from 1995 to 2000, average population growth rebounded to 230,000 people annually. Since 2000, population within Metropolitan’s service area has grown to over 275,000 per year on average, approaching the boom levels of the 1980s. According to recent growth forecasts, population growth in Metropolitan’s service area will average just over 150,000 people per year, increasing from an estimated 18.2 million in 2005 to 22.0 million in 2030.

Within Metropolitan’s service area, employment growth will not occur at the same rate across the six counties. Over the 25-year period between 2005 and 2030, the greatest employment increases are expected to occur in Los Angeles County, with over one million additional jobs expected. Relative to existing employment, Riverside and San Bernardino counties are expected to have the highest percent increases at 96 and 55 percent respectively, followed by Ventura County at 44 percent.

Residential Water Use

Although single family homes account for about 55 percent of the total occupied housing stock, they account for about 70 percent of total residential water demands. This variation occurs because single-family households tend to use more water than households living in multifamily structures (such as duplexes, triplexes, apartment buildings) on a per housing-unit basis. Single family households tend to have more persons living in the household; they are likely to have more water-using appliances and fixtures; and they tend to have more landscaping per home.

Commercial, Industrial and Institutional Water Use

CII water use represents about 25 percent of the total M&I demands in Metropolitan's service area. The CII (nonresidential) sector represents water that is used by businesses, services, government, institutions (such as hospitals and schools), and industrial (or manufacturing) establishments. Within the commercial/institutional category, the top water users include schools, hospitals, hotels, amusement parks, colleges, laundries, and restaurants. In Southern California, the major industrial users include electronics, aircraft, petroleum refining, beverages, food processing, and other industries that use water as a major component of the manufacturing process.

These new population projections are lower than prior estimates. The 1996 IRP projection reached nearly 22 million by 2020, and the IRP Update projection reaches about 21.4 million by that time. More conservative projections of employment growth and lowered estimates of future birth rates are partly responsible for the lower growth projections. Another factor is the 2000 Census, which provided population counts 0.48 million lower than the best estimates from the DOF for the six counties containing Metropolitan’s service area.

The most populated cities within Metropolitan's service area are Los Angeles (largest city in the state), San Diego (second largest in the state), Long Beach, Anaheim, Santa Ana and Riverside.

Local Water Supplies

Local sources of water available to the region include surface water, groundwater, and recycled water. Some of the major river systems in Southern California have been developed into systems of dams, flood control channels, and percolation ponds for supplying local water and recharging groundwater basins.

Groundwater sources account for about 90 percent of the natural local water supplies, which are found in many basins throughout the Southern California region.

Local surface water resources consist of runoff captured in storage reservoirs and diversions from streams. Reservoirs hold the runoff for later direct use, and diversions from streams are delivered directly to local water systems.

Water recycling projects involve treating wastewater to a level that is acceptable and safe for many nonpotable applications. This resource is providing an increasing level of local water.

Drought

The fluctuation in water supplies that occurred during this 1975-2004 period is the result of a number of factors. California experienced an extended drought during this period, which was particularly severe in 1991 and 1992. The long duration of this drought, which began in 1987, resulted in a decline in local supplies over the period due primarily to a reduction in groundwater availability. In addition, shortages in SWP supplies in 1991 and 1992 resulted in significant efforts to increase water conservation activities and, for part of that time, the imposition of water rationing.

Major Challenges: In its role as supplemental supplier to the Southern California water community, Metropolitan faces ongoing challenges in meeting the region’s needs for water supply reliability and quality. Increased environmental regulations and competition for water from outside the region have resulted in changes in delivery patterns and timing of availability of imported water supplies. At the same time, the Colorado River basin has experienced a five-year drought that is unprecedented in recorded history, while total water demand continues to rise within the region because of population and economic growth.

Guiding Principles: WSDM Plan Principles and Goals The guiding principle of the WSDM plan is to manage Metropolitan’s water resources and management programs to maximize management of wet year supplies and minimize adverse impacts of water shortages to retail customers. From this guiding principle came the following supporting principles:

• Encourage efficient water use and economical local resource programs.

• Coordinate operations with member agencies to make as much surplus water as possible available for use in dry years.

• Pursue innovative transfer and banking programs to secure more imported water for use in dry years.

Increase public awareness about water supply issues.

The WSDM plan also declared that if mandatory import water allocations be necessary, they would be calculated on the basis of need, as opposed to any type of historical purchases.

Public Participation: Because of the diverse needs, interests, and institutional entities within the region, goals will only be achieved through an open and participatory process that involves the major stakeholders. Public process reached out to water managers, policy decisionmakers, interest groups, and individuals. They provided valuable input and guidance regarding the preferred water resource strategy and carefully reviewed the technical analyses supporting the decision-making process. The 1996 IRP and the IRP Update contain details of the public participation.

Participants represented organizations ranging from the Sierra Club, the Mono Lake Committee and The Nature Conservancy, to the Building Industry Association and the Southern California Water Committee, to agencies such as the Los Angeles Department of Water and Power, the San Diego County Water Authority, Mojave Water Agency, and theSouthern California Water Dialogue.

The Metropolitan Water District of Southern California
Formation and Purpose
The Metropolitan Water District of Southern California (Metropolitan) is a public agency organized in 1928 by a vote of the electorates of 13 Southern California cities. The agency was enabled by the adoption of the original Metropolitan Water District Act (Metropolitan Act) by the California Legislature "for the purpose of developing, storing, and distributing water" to the residents of Southern California. The Metropolitan Act also allows Metropolitan to sell additional water, if available, for other beneficial uses. In 1992, the Metropolitan Board of Directors adopted the following mission statement: "to provide its service area with adequate and reliable supplies of high-quality water to meet present and future needs in an environmentally and economically responsible way."

The first function of Metropolitan was building the Colorado River Aqueduct to convey water from the Colorado River. Deliveries through the aqueduct began in the early 1940s and supplemented the local water supplies of the original Southern California member cities. In 1960, to meet growing water demands in its service area, Metropolitan contracted for additional water supplies from the State Water Project (SWP) via the California Aqueduct, which is owned and operated by the DWR. SWP deliveries began in 1972. Metropolitan currently receives imported water from both of these sources: (1) the Colorado River water via the Colorado River Aqueduct and (2) the SWP.

Where does our water come from in Southern California?

Groundwater

The groundwater basins that underlie the region provide approximately 90 percent of the local water supply in Southern California. The major groundwater basins in the region provide an annual average supply of approximately 1.41 million acrefeet. Most of this water recharges naturally, but approximately 200 taf is replenished through imported supplies. By 2025, estimates show that groundwater production will increase to 1.44 million acrefeet. Because the groundwater basins contain a large volume of stored water, it is possible to produce more than the natural recharge of 1.16 million acre feet and the replenishment amount for short periods of time. During a dry year, replenishment deliveries can be postponed, but doing so requires that the shortfall be restored in wet years. Similarly, in dry years the level of the groundwater basins can be drawn down, as long as the balance is restored to the natural recharge level by increasing replenishment in wet years. Thus, the groundwater basins can act as a water bank, allowing deposits in wet years and withdrawals in dry years.

Surface Water

In addition to the groundwater basins, local agencies maintain surface reservoir capacity to capture local runoff. The annual average yield captured from local watersheds is estimated to average approximately 100 taf per year. The majority of this supply comes from reservoirs within the service area of San Diego County Water Authority.

Los Angeles Aqueduct

Although the LAA imports water from outside the region, Metropolitan classifies water provided by the LAA as a local resource because it is developed and imported by a local agency (the Los Angeles Department of Water and Power). This resource is estimated to provide approximately 250 taf per year on average, which may be reduced to approximately 96 taf during a historical dry period.

Surface Storage: Source Of Supply

Surface storage is a critical element of Southern California’s water resources strategy. Because California experiences dramatic swings in weather and hydrology, surface storage is important to regulate those swings and mitigate possible supply shortages. Surface storage provides a means of storing water during normal and wet years for later use during dry years, when imported supplies are limited. Since the early twentieth century the Department of Water Resources and Metropolitan have constructed surface water reservoirs to meet emergency, drought/seasonal and regulatory water needs for Southern California. These reservoirs include Pyramid Lake, Castaic Lake, Elderberry Forebay, Silverwood Lake, Lake Perris, Lake Skinner, Lake Mathews, Live Oak Reservoir, Garvey Reservoir, Palos Verdes Reservoir, Orange County Reservoir and Metropolitan’s recently completed Diamond Valley Lake.

PROGRAMS

Conservation Credits Program

Metropolitan’s Conservation Credits Program (CCP) provides the basis for financial incentives and funding for urban BMP and other demand management related activities. Established in 1988, this funding mechanism supports Metropolitan’s commitment to conservation as a long-term water management strategy. The basis of Metropolitan financial support to member agency conservation efforts is estimated as the lesser of $154 per acre-foot of water saved or one-half of the program cost. In general, CCP funded water conservation project proposals must:

• Have demonstrable water savings;

• Reduce water demands on Metropolitan’s system; and

• Be technically sound and require Metropolitan’s participation to make the project financially and economically feasible.

The Regional Supply Unit

Metropolitan staff is responsible for developing and administering Metropolitan’s water conservation policies and programs. Approximately 10 people focus their efforts on water conservation issues. Staff members serve as the primary liaisons to Metropolitan’s member agencies and other pertinent agencies and organizations. Metropolitan’s conservation programs focus on three main areas: residential indoor programs, landscape programs, and commercial, industrial and institutional programs.

Residential Programs The residential conservation programs consist of ultra-low-flush toilets (ULFT), high efficiency clothes washers (HECW), and water-use efficiency surveys (Surveys). Metropolitan extended funding to include installing conserving devices that exceed standards in new development.

Ultra-Low-Flush Toilet (ULFT) Program

This program addresses BMP 14: conserving water by replacing older, high water using toilets (3.5 gallons-per-flush and greater) with 1.6 gallons per flush ULFTs. Metropolitan began co-funding member agencymanaged ULFT programs in 1988, and to date, 25 of Metropolitan’s 26 member agencies have conducted ULFT programs. This activity is the largest of Metropolitan’s conservation programs. Metropolitan funds ULFT retrofit programs at $60 per ULFT installed. In August 2002, Metropolitan began funding dual-flush toilets at $80 per unit installed. These toilets exceed the current standard of 1.6 gallons per flush and, thus, have higher water savings than ULFTs. ULFT programs are implemented through rebates or distributions. Rebate programs allow customers to purchase their choice of ULFT. Distribution programs provide ULFTs to customers at little or no charge. Rebates and vouchers typically range in value from $60 to $75, depending on the managing water agency’s policy. In both the rebate and voucher programs, the customer is responsible for disposing of the old toilet. Table III-4 shows the total cumulative savings from ULFT toilets, including all previous installations. In FY 2003-04, the estimated savings were 81 taf per year, translating into a lifetime savings exceeding 1.6 million af.

High Efficiency Clothes Washer Rebate Program

The installation of high-efficiency clothes washers (HECWs) is a growing segment in water conservation. In September 1997, the California Urban Water Conservation Council adopted BMP 6 for HECWs, and it approved revisions in March 2004. The revisions contain two options for how to credit agencies. The first option is based on the washer’s “water factor” (WF), which is a measure of the amount of water used to wash a standard load of laundry. Washers with lower water factors save more water. The first option awards 1 point for HECWs with water factors 9.5 through 8.6; 2 points for WF 8.5 through 6.1; and 3 points for WF 6 and less. It does not award points for HECWs with water factors greater than 9.5. The second method grants 1 point for all washers regardless of the water factor.

New Development Program

Metropolitan recently adopted incentives for new developments to install highly efficient fixtures that exceed current water use efficiency standards. Other opportunities to promote the installation of water-efficient devices in new developments will be explored with manufacturers, the building industry, and stakeholders.

Residential outdoor audit program

Metropolitan funds a residential landscape efficiency program through outdoor audits and weather-based irrigation controller rebates. Landscape audits provide customers with a recommended irrigation schedule and suggested improvements for irrigation systems. Installation of weather-based irrigation controllers (WBICs) is supported through the coordinated rebate program described below.

Residential Weather-Based Irrigation Controller (WBIC) Rebate

Weather-based irrigation controllers are a rapidly evolving conservation technology. It entails devices that adjust irrigation schedules based on rain, temperature, sunlight, soil moisture, or some combination of indicators. Metropolitan began funding WBIC incentives in homes after conducting a pilot study that evaluated potential savings and ease of use. The incentive is $65 per WBIC, plus $5.50 per station over 12 stations for residential sites.

Non-Residential Landscape Water Use Efficiency Program

Metropolitan has funded large landscape audits since 1993, retrofit of landscapes with centralized irrigation controllers since 1998, and rebates for weather-based irrigation controllers (WBIC) since 2002.

Measured Water Savings:

Metropolitan provides incentives to upgrade landscape irrigation equipment that can provide verified water savings. In addition, participants may receive landscape water management training. A dedicated landscape meter is required to participate in this pay-forperformance program component. Incentives are $115 per acre-foot of verified saving if Metropolitan provides the training, and $154 per acre-foot if the agency provides the training. The incentives continue to be paid for up to five years or one-half of the project cost.

Southern California Heritage Landscape Program

In 2002, Metropolitan launched a public outreach campaign targeting outdoor water use. The campaign, coordinated with participating member agencies, included funding for the promotion of efficient residential watering through irrigation controllers, a watering index to assist in estimating efficient watering times, and a native and California-friendly plant program. Metropolitan expanded these programs in 2003 and 2004 with an extensive media and outreach campaign and launched a consumer-oriented outdoor conservation savings web site. The landscape program is expected to reduce summer and fall outdoor water use. The actual savings rate will be measured, but will not be included in the IRP Update’s resource goals. Quantifying the potential savings is complicated because of possible overlaps with other programs – some of the outdoor savings, when measured, may be confounded with price-induced savings unless the effort is preceded by a controlled evaluation study.

Grant funding sources

Calfed
Prop 13 grants
Proposition 13 (The Safe Drinking, Clean Water, Watershed Protection, and Flood Protection Act) provided funding for water conservation.

CPUC (w/CUWCC)
California Public Utilities Commission (CPUC) Grants • In 2003, Metropolitan partnered with the California Urban Water Conservation Council to use CPUC grant funding to install 12,000 pre-rinse spray valves in restaurants

USBR
U.S. Bureau of Reclamation Grants The following projects received funding from USBR during 2003:
• California Friendly Landscape pilot for new homes
• Evaluation of data loggers, devices that attach to a water meter to provide precise, unobtrusive water use information
• Metropolitan facilitated grantees with funding. Funds were granted directly to applicants for four additional Innovative Conservation Programs.

Water for the West
Protector del Agua. Development of webbased classes

Prop 50
Proposition 50 Grant Funds
• Residential High Efficiency Clothes Washers. Provided funds to increase the rebate amount– $1.6 million.
• California Friendly Landscape Pilot for new homes by $423,000
• High Efficiency Toilets – $1 million.
• Protector del Agua. Development of online classes

Conservation-Related Activities

Speaker’s Bureau

Provides speakers for organizations, service clubs, churches, business and other community groups and associations. An estimated 15,000 – 20,000 people attend these presentations annually.

Community Relations

Organizes and conducts an average of 80 Board of Directorsponsored inspection trips of Metropolitan’s distribution system per year for elected officials, community leaders and members of the public. Approximately 3,000 people learn about Metropolitan’s conservation and water management policies and practices each year through these trips. Additionally, Metropolitan’s education curriculum and program activities engage an average of 150,000 students per year.

Media and Publications

Conducts editorial briefings and media field trips; assembles press packets; prepares and disseminates news releases, speeches, videos, fact sheets, brochures, articles and editorials describing Metropolitan’s water management objectives and programs.

Government Relations

Provides elected officials, public agencies, businesses and organizations with information about Metropolitan’s water management objectives and programs.

School Education Programs

Curriculum modules

Recycling

Local water recycling projects involve collecting wastewater that is currently discharged within the service area, treating that water to a suitable standard for specific uses, and using that recycled water for nonpotable uses. This section provides a description of the water sources that potentially could be used for recycled water.

Groundwater Recharge

Metropolitan’s service area overlies numerous groundwater basins, many of which are overdrafted, and some of which are threatened by seawater intrusion. Water agencies along the Los Angeles and Orange county coastline inject water into the underlying groundwater basins to create a barrier against this seawater. A limited amount of the injected water originates as captured storm water, but the major part is recycled, imported, or extracted from deep wells. Increasing the proportion of recycled water can free imported water for direct consumption. Currently, approximately 60 taf per year of recycled water is “permitted” for recharge and seawater barrier injection into the Orange County, Central and West Coast groundwater basins. About 30 percent of the recycled water in Metropolitan’s service area is used for groundwater replenishment and seawater barriers. On average, these and other seawater barriers recharge approximately 50 taf per year with imported water or water from extraction wells.

Irrigation

Currently, about 86 taf per year of recycled water is used to irrigate golf courses, parks, schoolyards, cemeteries and greenbelts throughout Southern California. Using recycled water for irrigation reduces the need for imported water during the critical summer months and in drought situations when water supplies are most scarce.

Industrial

Industrial users represent a large potential market for recycled water, particularly in heavily industrialized areas, such as the cities of Vernon, Commerce, Industry and the Wilmington area of Los Angeles. Additionally, refineries in El Segundo in West Basin MWD’s service area and in the City of Torrance use approximately 8 taf per year of recycled water. Typical industrial uses include cooling tower makeup water, boiler feed water, paper manufacturing, carpet dying, and process water. Industrial users are highdemand, continuous-flow customers, which allows greater operational flexibility by allowing plants to base load operations rather than contend with seasonal and diurnal flow variations. Because of these operational benefits, industrial users reduce the need for storage and other peak demand facilities and management.

Live Stream Discharge

A number of inland plants pump treated effluent into local streams and rivers. That water is then used downstream for beneficial uses, or it flows into the ocean. Some of the affected rivers (or ephemeral streams) include:
• Los Angeles River
• Santa Ana River
• Calleguas Creek
• Rio Hondo & San Gabriel Rivers
• Santa Margarita River

Groundwater Recharge

Metropolitan’s service area overlies numerous groundwater basins, many of which are overdrafted, and some of which are threatened by seawater intrusion. Water agencies along the Los Angeles and Orange county coastline inject water into the underlying groundwater basins to create a barrier against this seawater. A limited amount of the injected water originates as captured storm water, but the major part is recycled, imported, or extracted from deep wells. Increasing the proportion of recycled water can free imported water for direct consumption. Currently, approximately 60 taf per year of recycled water is “permitted” for recharge and seawater barrier injection into the Orange County, Central and West Coast groundwater basins. About 30 percent of the recycled water in Metropolitan’s service area is used for groundwater replenishment and seawater barriers.

Seasonal Storage

Production of wastewater at a water reclamation plant is relatively uniform year round since indoor residential use does not vary much from winter to summer. Flows may be somewhat higher in the winter at the wastewater reclamation plant from stormwater inflow into the sewers, but more than 60 percent of irrigation demand on recycled water (parks, golf courses, etc.) is in summer (May through September).

Seawater Desalination

Until recently, seawater desalination has been considered uneconomical to be included in the region’s water supply mix. However, recent breakthroughs in membrane technology and plant siting strategies have helped reduce desalination costs, warranting consideration among alternative resource options outlined in Metropolitan’s IRP Update. The IRP Update includes a target of 750 taf per year of local water production by 2025 that could include up to 150 taf per year of seawater desalination.

As a first step to implementing this plan, Metropolitan issued a competitive request for proposals targeting 50 taf per year of desalinated seawater. Metropolitan would provide financial assistance of up to $250 per acre-foot of desalinated seawater developed and used within Metropolitan’s service area for up to 25 years. Five member agencies submitted proposals for about 142 taf per year of desalinated seawater, including San Diego County Water Authority, Long Beach Water Department, Los Angeles Department of Water and Power, West Basin Municipal Water District, and the Municipal Water District of Orange County, which are expected to come on line by 2010.


Health Issues

Perchlorate: Ammonium perchlorate is used as a main component in solid rocket propellant, and it can also be found in some types of munitions and fireworks. Ammonium perchlorate and other perchlorate salts are readily soluble in water, dissociating into the perchlorate ion (ClO4-), which is highly mobile in the groundwater. The perchlorate ion does not readily interact with the soil matrix or degrade in the environment. The primary human health concern related to perchlorate is its effects on the thyroid. Perchlorate interferes with the thyroid gland's ability to produce hormones required for normal growth and development. Currently, the California Department of Health Services (CDHS) has adopted a notification level of 6 µg/L for perchlorate and is in the process of developing a drinking water regulation.

Total Organic Carbon and Bromide When source water containing high levels of total organic carbon (TOC) and bromide is treated with disinfectants such as chlorine or ozone, disinfection byproducts (DBPs) form. Studies have shown a link between certain cancers and DBP exposure. In addition, some studies have shown an association between reproductive and developmental effects and chlorinated water.

Existing levels of total organic carbon (TOC) and bromide in Delta water supplies present challenges for Metropolitan’s ability to maintain safe drinking water supplies. Levels of these constituents in SWP water increase several fold due to agricultural drainage and seawater intrusion as water moves through the Delta.

Four other chemicals have been identified as being of concern in Metropolitan’s water supplies. These are MTBE, arsenic, radon and uranium. The following sections detail the reasons for Metropolitan’s concerns and the plans for addressing them. Other emerging contaminants, such as NDMA and hexavalent chromium, could impact the region’s water supplies; they have been identified, but the full extent of problems associated with them remains uncertain.

MTBE presents a significant problem to local groundwater basins. Leaking underground storage tanks and poor fuel-handling practices at local gas stations may provide a large source of MTBE. Only one gallon of gasoline (11% MTBE by volume) is enough to contaminate about 16.5 million gallons of water at 5 µg/L. Within Metropolitan's service area, local groundwater producers have been forced to close some of their wells due to MTBE contamination. For example, the city of Santa Monica lost about fifty percent of its production wells as a result of MTBE.

Improved underground storage tank requirements and monitoring, and the phase-out of MTBE as a fuel additive, will probably decrease the likelihood of MTBE groundwater problems in the future. However, it is difficult to estimate the magnitude of the problem when a small amount of MTBE can contaminate such a large volume of water.

Radon U.S. EPA has proposed a radon MCL of 300 picoCuries per liter (pCi/L), with an alternative standard of 4,000 pCi/L if the state has an approved Multimedia Mitigation program to reduce the indoor radon risk from soil and rocks underneath homes and buildings. Radon levels in Metropolitan’s water supplies have been well below the proposed MCL of 300 pCi/L.11 Where radon is a problem, airstripping through aeration is the costeffective treatment option.

Arsenic The new federal MCL for arsenic in domestic water supplies is 10 µg/L, with an effective date of 2006. The standard will impact both groundwater and surface water supplies. Metropolitan’s water supplies have low levels of this contaminant and will not require treatment changes or capital investment to comply with this new standard. However, some investment will be needed to manage arsenic in the solids resulting from treatment.

Uranium A ten-and-a-half-million-ton pile of uranium mine tailings at Moab, Utah lies 600 feet from the Colorado River. Rainwater has been seeping through the pile and contaminating the local groundwater, causing a flow of contaminants into the river. It also has the potential to wash millions of tons of material containing uranium into the Colorado River as a result of a flood or other natural disaster. Public perception of drinking water safety is a particular concern with uranium.

The Department of Energy has agreed to move the tailings, but remediating the site will require Congressional appropriations, and maintaining congressional support for a cleanup will require close coordination and cooperation with other Colorado River users.

Other Emerging Contaminants

A number of other emerging contaminants, most notably N-nitrosodimethylamine, chromium VI, and pharmaceutical products, may also impact groundwater supplies.

Chromium VI is a possible contaminant in groundwater and surface water. Chromium is an inorganic chemical used in electroplating, leather tanning, wood treatment, pigments manufacture, and cooling tower treatment for corrosion control. Chromium can enter drinking water sources through discharges from industries, leaching from hazardous waste sites, and erosion of natural deposits.

Pharmaceuticals and personal care products in source water and recycled water have led to growing expressions of concern. The extent that these contaminants are found to require mitigation may increase the cost of recycled water and wastewater treatment, and they may require broad controls on runoff into source water.


Water Conservation Water conservation distinguishes between:
• Code-Based Conservation – Water saved as a result of changes in water efficiency requirements for plumbing fixtures in plumbing codes. Thus, this form of conservation would occur without any water agency action.
• Active Conservation – Water saved directly as a result of conservation programs by water agencies (includes implementation of Best Management Practices.) This form of conservation is unlikely to occur without agency action.
Price-effect Conservation – Water saved by retail customers attributable to the effect of changes in the real (inflationadjusted) price of water.

Single Family Residential and Multi Family Residential

Explanatory variables:
Climate
Household Size
Income
Price and Conservation
Housing Density
Service Area Location

Commercial, Industrial, Institutional

Explanatory variables:
Climate Price and Conservation Industrial / Service employment Share

Public Information Program Activities

Paid advertising
Public service announcements
Bill inserts
Newsletters
Brochures
Bill showing water usage in comparison to previous year's usage
Demonstration gardens
Special events
Speakers Bureau

Technical support

ULFT replacement
Residential retrofits
Commercial, industrial and institutional surveys
Residential and large turf irrigation
Conservation-related rates and pricing